Powering Up: M&A in Saudi Arabia’s Energy Sector
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) within the energy sector in Saudi Arabia have become increasingly common in recent years. With the country being the largest oil exporter in the world, the energy sector is a critical component of the Saudi Arabian economy. As such, M&A activity within this sector has significant implications for both the country and the global energy industry.
M&A activity within the energy sector in Saudi Arabia is primarily driven by a desire to increase operational efficiencies, gain access to new technologies, and expand market share. Additionally, the country's recent economic and political reforms have encouraged foreign investment, further fuelling M&A activity within the energy sector.
One notable example of an M&A within the energy sector in Saudi Arabia is the acquisition of a 70% stake in Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) by Saudi Aramco, the state-owned oil company. The acquisition was completed in 2020 and was one of the largest M&A deals in the world, valued at $69.1 billion. The acquisition allowed Saudi Aramco to diversify its business and expand its downstream capabilities while also giving it access to SABIC’s technology and expertise.
Another notable example of an M&A within the energy sector in Saudi Arabia is the acquisition of a 51% stake in ACWA Power, a leading developer and operator of power generation and desalinated water plants, by the Public Investment Fund (PIF), the sovereign wealth fund of Saudi Arabia. The acquisition was completed in 2018 and was valued at $1.2 billion. The acquisition allowed PIF to expand its investments in the renewable energy sector and support the country’s efforts to diversify its energy mix.
Here are some continued themes impacting the energy sector in Saudi Arabia:
Diversification of the energy mix: Saudi Arabia has set ambitious goals to diversify its energy mix and increase its share of renewable energy. The country plans to develop 58.7 gigawatts (GW) of renewable energy capacity by 2030, which would account for 30% of the country’s energy mix. This shift towards renewables is expected to reduce the country’s reliance on oil for power generation and support its efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Continued investment in the energy sector: Saudi Arabia has signalled its commitment to investing in the energy sector to support its economic growth and diversification goals. The country’s Public Investment Fund (PIF) has announced plans to invest $40 billion annually in the domestic economy, with a significant portion of this investment expected to be directed toward the energy sector.
Expansion of Renewable Energy: The country has set ambitious targets for renewable energy, aiming to generate 50% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2030. This target is expected to drive significant investment in the renewable energy sector, particularly in solar and wind power.
Increased Foreign Investment: Saudi Arabia has been actively seeking foreign investment in the energy sector, particularly in the form of joint ventures and partnerships. The recent reforms in the country, coupled with its large oil and gas reserves, are likely to attract continued foreign investment in the sector.
Growth in the downstream sector: The country has significant downstream capabilities, with its state-owned oil company, Saudi Aramco, being one of the largest downstream players in the world. The country is expected to continue to invest in its downstream sector to capture more value from its oil and gas resources and support the growth of its petrochemicals industry.
Adoption of new technologies: Saudi Arabia has been exploring the use of new technologies in the energy sector, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS) and hydrogen production. These technologies could help the country reduce its carbon footprint and increase its energy efficiency. Saudi Arabia is expected to adopt new technologies to increase operational efficiencies and reduce costs in the energy sector. This includes the adoption of digital technologies such as artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, and blockchain to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and enhance safety.
Impact of Global Energy Transition: The global transition to cleaner energy sources is likely to have a significant impact on the energy sector in Saudi Arabia. While the country is taking steps to diversify its energy mix, it remains heavily dependent on oil exports. As the demand for oil declines in the global market, Saudi Arabia may need to adjust its energy strategy to remain competitive.
M&A activity within the energy sector in Saudi Arabia is subject to a range of legal and regulatory requirements. The Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority (SAGIA) and the Capital Market Authority (CMA) regulate M&A activity in the country and must approve all transactions. Several laws impact energy companies in Saudi Arabia who are considering an M&A. Some of the key laws are as follows:
Companies Law: The Companies Law in Saudi Arabia governs the formation, operation, and dissolution of companies in the country. The law provides guidelines on the various types of companies that can be formed, their legal structure, and the rights and obligations of shareholders. Any M&A transaction involving a company in Saudi Arabia must comply with the requirements of the Companies Law.
Antitrust Law: The Saudi Arabian General Authority for Competition (GAC) is responsible for enforcing the country’s antitrust laws. These laws prohibit anti-competitive practices, such as price fixing and market allocation, and require that M&A transactions be reviewed for potential anti-competitive effects.
Foreign Investment Law: The Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority (SAGIA) is responsible for regulating foreign investment in the country. The Foreign Investment Law outlines the rules and regulations governing foreign investment in Saudi Arabia, including the procedures for establishing and registering foreign-owned companies.
Environmental Laws: Energy companies in Saudi Arabia are subject to various environmental laws and regulations designed to protect the environment and public health. These laws cover areas such as air and water pollution, waste management, and environmental impact assessments.
Tax Laws: M&A transactions may have tax implications for energy companies in Saudi Arabia. The country has a complex tax system, with different tax regimes for different types of companies and industries. Energy companies should seek professional tax advice before engaging in an M&A transaction.
Securities Law: The Capital Market Authority (CMA) regulates the securities market in Saudi Arabia. Any M&A transaction that involves a public company or the issuance of securities must comply with the requirements of the Securities Law.
In conclusion, the energy sector in Saudi Arabia is expected to undergo significant changes in the coming years, driven by a range of factors such as diversification, renewable energy, foreign investment, new technologies, and the global energy transition. While these changes may bring challenges, they also present opportunities for the country to adapt and thrive in a rapidly evolving energy landscape.